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What’s The Difference Between Viruses, Worms, and Trojans ?

Some people may use terms like “virus,” “trojan,” or “worm” interchangeably, but they should not. Each term has its own definition, and they operate in certain ways. For instance, the term “malware” refers to any program that is malicious. Thankfully, antiviruses remove all types, from malware to trojans to worms.
With that said, what are the differences between these three?

Viruses

A virus has one purpose, and that’s to infect files. Think of it as a real virus, which will infect cells. By running a file infected by a virus, it will spread to the files on your system. It typically spreads to the .exe files, so when you run the programs, the virus will run. Viruses infect other file types, including Office documents with macros.

So how do they harm your computer? By doing quite a bit. They may overwrite your program files with themselves instead of attaching to the program, or they may delete your files. Viruses are memory hogs, and this can lead to constant computer crashes. With real viruses, they’re dangerous because they spread. A simple transfer or click can spread the virus everywhere, and you can’t stop it.

Worms

A worm, meanwhile, doesn’t need to be executed to spread. They don’t infect other files, but copy themselves instead. Worms may worms virus trojans-03email themselves to everyone in your address book, such as the Mydoom worm, and they may come in through vulnerabilities in the systems. These are typically not updated and have their firewalls off.
These worms can typically cause a lot of traffic if they transfer through a network, causing immense slowdown. It can cause the same amount of damage as a virus, so they need to be eliminated as soon as possible.

Trojans

A trojan is named after the myth of the trojan horse. You probably are familiar with this story, but if you’re not, here’s a refresher. The Greeks needed to take over the city of Troy, and to do this, they made a giant wooden horse and gave it to the citizens of Troy as a gift. However, inside the horse were Greek soldiers. The horse was taken into the city, and at night, when the city had its defenses down, they came out of the horse and opened the gates, allowing them to attack the city when they least expected it.

So trojans do the same thing. They will pose as software that seems like it has a use, but while you install it, it allows a backdoor to be opened, letting risks in. The person who created the trojan then can use your connection to do horrible activities that can be contributed to you, or install anything they want onto their system. But trojans can only work if you execute them.

Misc. Threats

Here are a few other types of malicious programs.

Spyware-As the name implies, it will spy on your computer. These include keyloggers, which will record every keystroke you make in order to steal your information, or it may include adware that will monitor your browsing and send you personalized ads. These are made to make money, and many antiviruses do not remove them. However, Windows Defender for Windows 7 will do just that.

Scareware/Crimeware-Scareware, well, scares you into downloading their malicious software. It may pop up on a page and claim that you have hundreds of viruses on your computer, and only their antivirus can protect you. Their antivirus will tell you the same thing, and it will say to buy the program to remove it. Once you pay them, the scareware goes away. Of course, you can remove it and not give them a penny.

Overall

No matter what it’s called, these threats pose a danger to your computer. Therefore, you should keep your antivirus up-to-date, use a firewall, and make sure you don’t click on anything suspicious. While it won’t prevent you from getting a malicious program completely, it will greatly reduce the risk.

The Lifespan of Storage Devices

Nowadays, there’s something out there for everyone when it comes to storage. Some can store massive amounts of data, some can fit into your pocket, and some are fast. But are they reliable? We should know that DVDs and CDs can easily fail, and that’s why they’re going out. But is your hard drive, solid state drive, or SD card safe? Can they store your data indefinitely, or will they fail? In this article, we’ll give you all the answers.

Hard Drives

You should know that if you delete something off your hard drive, it’s not gone for good. Many people will collect old hard drives and show how much data they can get off them to make a point. If you don’t securely delete your data, people may be able to recover it. Even then, recovery isn’t impossible. Only destroying the hard drive can delete it for good.

However, your hard drive shouldn’t be looked at as a permanent way to archive. The hard drive is composed of plenty of moving parts. Moving arms, spinning disks, and so many other parts. With time, those parts may break down, destroying your hard drive.

One way these hard drives can fail is due to head crashes, where the storage devices 03head of the hard drive scrapes the disk. All it takes is a power outage or surge, or a physical blow to it to do this. Your hard drive will most likely fail because of a head crash. If not, it can begin degrading.
According to a 2013 study by BackBlaze, a cloud storage organization, five percent out of 25,000 hard drives fail by the first year and a half. These are mostly defects, however. Most are stable, but by the fourth year, they have an 11.8 percent chance of failing. Three-fourths of hard drives will last four years or more.

Of course, this is mostly due to excessive use. If you copy your data to it and then store it, unused, your data will last for years. Just keep it away from magnetic sources, as they do store data magnetically.

However, the magnetism can decline over time, but you can fix it by turning on the hard drive and write the data. Do this every other year if you want a reliable way to store something for years to come.

Solid State Drives

Solid State Drives, or SSDs, are a new way to store. They don’t use those moving parts, and are more like USB drives. They are more expensive than hard disk drives and offer less storage, but they can make your computer much faster. To store, they use flash chips, and don’t need any disk or head.

In other words, the SSD isn’t going to go through a head crash, so if you shock or hit it, it’s not going to wipe the drive. Also, magnetism doesn’t affect an SSD.

But what you should remember is that SSDs have similar parts to hard disk drives, and they may fail over time. Also, if there’s a power failure, it may lead to the failure of the drive, or cause data corruption. Also, since SSDs are new, there still haven’t been any huge studies that have revealed how long they’ll last. So don’t use it for permanent storage until you know how long they’ll last.

When it comes to repeated use, the memory blocks in an SSD has a certain amount of write cycles to it. In other words, if you store data on it a certain amount of times, it may die. The cycles are typically a couple thousand. While this seems low, it’s nothing bad. Hard drives write their data to the closest free block, but SSDs will use each block before beginning the cycle again.

To put this into normal terms, you should be fine unless you’re writing chunks of data to your SSD for years. You won’t reach its limit, and if you did, you could still read it, but you couldn’t overwrite it, so your data wouldn’t be deleted.

SSDs are a great way to store if you prefer performance to storage, and it may not be good for long-term storage. The length of how long your SSD can store data without being powered can depend on a lot of factors. Many can last up to ten years, but some might fail in only a few months. Look at the manufacturers, as they will list how you can store your data.

Flash Drives

Flash drives, thumb drives, USB drives, jump drives. They go by so many names, but you know them as the convenient way to store. Just put it into a USB, write it to the drive, and then put it in your pocket. They have many problems as an SSD, such as a certain amount of write cycles. They are also cheaply made compared to SSDs, so they may be less reliable.

You probably won’t reach your write limit, however. If you use the flash drive to move files to different locations, then you have to worry about physical damage more. Also, you can put your data at risk if you don’t eject it before you remove it from the USB slot, so don’t pull it out unejected.

However, if you use it as an archiver, it’s not that great. While some drive makers claim that you can store data for nearly a century if it’s in the right environment, it is probably lower than that. Data retention depends on the memory blocks’ health. If you buy the drive, back it up, and then store, it can last for years. However, if you use it a lot, don’t use it for storage.

Overall

So what you should remember in this article is that storage drives are not perfect. While it can hold data for years under the right conditions, you should check it to make sure constantly. One thing you should do is to copy it off the drive and onto it again. You should also make sure that you use more than one way to store data. Rotate your storage methods and make sure you have it backed on many devices, and you should keep your data for good.

Reasons Why PC Desktops Will Never Be Replaced by Tablets

While desktop, and even laptop sales are on the steady decline, smartphones and tablets are growing more popular. This kind of occurrence usually prompts “experts” to announce that PC is dead, either immediately, or in 5 years, depending on who you ask. We’ll let them cool down for a bit, while we analyze why desktops will never go away, nor they should, because we need them. Despite all the fancy bells and whistles that tablets bring to the table, and the smug satisfaction we get from swiping the touchscreen, as if we are in “Minority Report”, they still cannot replace desktop or laptop PCs. These are some of the reasons why PCs are here to stay.

Power

While there are some seriously powerful components tucked away inside the tablet casings, their power is dwarfed by the power of the equivalent components found inside desktops. Yes, tablets keep on getting more powerful, but so do desktops, always several steps ahead of the mobile pack. Desktop are irreplaceable among graphic designers, photographers, software developers, and last, but not least, gamers.

Difference in Apps

Although there are hundreds of millions of apps available for both Android and iOS, among which some are exceptional, they are nowhere near their PC counterparts in terms of complexity, desktops will not be replacedcapabilities and sophistication. This difference is so clearly visible when you compare mobile versions of massive software suites, like Office or Photoshop, with their PC equivalents. Tablets and smartphones have a long way to go before they can catch up.

Keyboard

One of the most frequently listed aspects in which traditional desktops have the edge over tablets is the keyboard. Of course, tablet devices also have a keyboard, although theirs is a virtual one. What’s the problem with it? Well, the problem is that it’s not actually there. People prefer physical keyboards and for a good reason. They are much faster, since you can use both hands, and more accurate. Why abandon them for something that’s worse? Until tablets are equipped with something better than a virtual keyboard, desktop still have the edge when it comes to typing.

No Business Can Run Without Them

The business world has been quick to adopt tablet devices, as it makes some things a lot easier, but for the important bits, they still turn to Windows, and we’re talking about the PC version. There are Windows tablets, sure, but so far, they barely made a dent in desktops armor.

Security

Security was one of the things that tablet champions often pointed out as an improvement over PC desktops, and it was true, at least for a while. But, along with the rise in popularity and the ever growing number of apps available came the hackers, which turned Android into a premiere breeding ground for malware and viruses. While PCs are no better in that aspect, tablets no longer have the edge when it comes to security.

Designing Orange Buttons Horizontal Web Navigation Photoshop Tutorial

Today we are going to learn How to Designing Orange Buttons Horizontal Web Navigation bar in Photoshop CS5 with the help or Marquee Selection Tools, Brushes and Texts. Se lets begin.

STEP 1:

First of all create a new Photoshop Project for 1280×1024 pixels resolution. Fill the background color with Black color.

Now create a new layer, select the Rectangular Marquee Tool (M) and make  horizontal shape filled with #FC3826 color as showing below.

STEP 2:

Again select the Rectangular Marquee Tool (M) and make another selection shape over the horizontal bar as showing in next screenshot.

STEP 3:

Next Right Click on its layer, click Blending Options and select Gradient Overlay and set the color properties similar like following screenshot.

STEP 4:

After you have done with the above shape button over horizontal bar, duplicate the layer 4 times more and place it over horizontal bar.

STEP 5:

To add some effects and have more attractive look for horizontal menu buttons, select a blur Brush Tool (B) with 200 px diameter and apply  it over Menu buttons as showing in screenshot.

STEP 6:

For Active or Home Button, select Text Type Tool (T) and type Home text in dark color.

STEP 7:

Finally for other buttons, select Text Type Tool (T) and type buttons text for other menu buttons.

FINAL RESULT

 

I hope you’ve enjoyed this tutorial and learned creating Buttons and Navigation Menus for your templates in a different way. We will appreciate if you add your comments for improve our quality in future tutorials.

PHP: Basics Of Working With MySQL

In this tutorial I will be teaching you how to work with MySQL when programming in PHP. MySQL is something that every good PHP programmer has to know and this guide aims at teaching you all the basic functions for working with MySQL databases and maybe a few other little tips.

<?php
$server = ‘localhost’; // Usually you can leave it as localhost.
$user = ‘username’; // MySQL User
$pass = ‘password’; // MySQL Pass
$dbname = ‘database.name’; // Database Name
?>

This will be used by our next 2 functions which will connect to the MYSQL server and then connect to the correct database.

$server = ‘localhost’; // Usually you can leave it as localhost.
$user = ‘username’; // MySQL User
$pass = ‘password’; // MySQL Pass
$dbname = ‘database.name’; // Database Name
mysql_connect(“$server”, “$user”, “$pass”) or die(mysql_error()); // Connect to MySQL server or display error.
echo “Connected to MySQL server.<br />”;
mysql_select_db(“$dbname”) or die(mysql_error()); // Connect to our database.
echo “Connected to database.”;

Now that you can connect to your database its time for us to create a table (tables store data in a MySQL database). You run MySQL queries by using the function mysql_query(). In the next example we are going to learn how to create a table.

mysql_query(“CREATE TABLE users(
id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
PRIMARY KEY(id),
username VARCHAR(28),
password VARCHAR(40)”)
or die(mysql_error());

Theabove code will create a table called “users” in your selected database with the columns “username”, “password”, and an automatically updating ”id” number. The reason why we made the “password” column 40 characters long is because as SHA1 hash (encrypted password) is exactly 40 characters long.

For our next step we will be adding 2 users to the table. Adding data to your tables is also accomplished through the mysql_query() function however your query would be an INSERT one instead of CREATE. Below is an example of me adding our two users to our table.

REMEMBER: Never store an unencrypted password in your databases. (At least sha1() them first.)

mysql_query(“INSERT INTO users
(username, password) VALUES(‘mysql_real_escape_string($username)’, ‘sha1($password)’ ) “)
or die(mysql_error());

The above code will securely add a user to your table while encrypting the password and also guarding against MySQL injection at the same time. Always remember to use mysql_real_escape_string()  when your handling a variable a user controls to block hackers from performing a MySQL injection. Now last but not least I will show you how to retrieve data from your table. The following code will show you how to retrieve all data in a certain table.

$result = mysql_query(“SELECT * FROM users”)
or die(mysql_error());
$row = mysql_fetch_array($result);
echo “<br>Username: “.$row[‘username’].”<br>Password Hash: “.$row[‘password’];

Thats it for now! I hope this guide helped show you all how to work with MySQL databases and tables when working with php.

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